I obtained my Ph.D. degree under the guidance of Dr. Iqbal Unnissa in the year 1980. The thesis specialization was in Algebra in general and Lattice Theory in particular.

A study on rings, especially group rings was taken as my post-doctoral research in the period 1983-1988.

The Zero Divisor
Conjecture problem happened to be one of the fascinating topics in research
for me. My final conclusion on the Zero Divisor Conjecture is that there can
only be finite divisors of zero and an infinite divisor of zero is impossible.
This has appeared as a research paper entitled, "*Finite Zeros and
Finite Zero Divisors*" in the Varahmihir J. of Math. Sci., Vol.2,
295-302, 2002.

After joining the Indian Institute of Technology in 1988, I began to concentrate more on the Applications of Algebra.

The main applications of algebra are:

1. Algebraic
coding theory

2. Fuzzy models to transportation problems, chemical industries, cement industries,
medical, environmental and socially relevant problems.

3. Finite machines.

The other fields which I have specialized in are Smarandache algebraic structures and Neutrosophic Theory.

My Ph.D. guidance has been based on both pure and applied algebra.

Algebra has become a subject of declining interest around the world, including in countries like Australia, Russia etc. On the other hand, Applied Algebra is a very powerful tool. For instance, coding/communication theory, cryptography and several of fuzzy and neutrosophic models fall under this category.

Besides this, I serve as a referee in several national and international journals and I have refereed over 100 research papers relating to algebraic topics.